Blood Doping: Lance Armstrong and the USPS Pro Cycling Team

 

blood doping articles

When Lance Armstrong admitted to cheating, he was admitting to blood doping, the act of artificially increasing your red blood cell count. This can be done through blood transfusions or by using EPO. Learn about the risks and side effects of blood doping, some of which can be fatal. "The fear with blood doping or EPO use is that the blood count gets too high, the blood gets too thick, and it becomes hard for the heart to push the blood around the body or that somehow this Author: Jeanna Bryner. Aug 29,  · News about Doping, including commentary and archival articles published in The New York Times.


What is Blood Doping? | Live Science


To outline the direct and indirect approaches in the fight against blood doping in sports, the different strategies that have been used and are currently being used to fight efficiently against blood doping are presented and discussed. The paper outlines the different approaches and diagnostic tools that some federations have to identify and target sportspeople demonstrating abnormal blood profiles.

Originally blood tests were introduced for medical reasons and for limiting misuse of recombinant human erythropoietin rHuEPO. In this way it became possible to prevent athletes with haematocrit levels well above normal, and potentially dangerous for their health, competing in sport.

Today, with nearly a decade of blood testing experience, sports authorities should be familiar with some of the limitations and specially the ability of blood tests performed prior to competitions to fight efficiently against the blood doping articles of rHuEPO, blood transfusion, and artificial haemoglobin. Erythropoiesis is part of the large process of haematopoiesis, which involves the production of mature cells found in the blood and lymphoid organs. In the normal adult human, the daily turnover of erythrocytes exceeds 10 11 cells.

During periods of increased erythrocyte loss, due to haemolysis or haemorrhage, the production of erythrocytes increases rapidly and markedly. However, overproduction of erythrocytes does not occur, even after the most severe loss of erythrocytes. In haematopoiesis, a few pluripotent haematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow proliferate and differentiate to give rise to all the cellular components of the blood and the lymphoid system, blood doping articles.

During this process, an individual haematopoietic cell undergoes an apparently random process called commitment. When a cell undergoes commitment, its potential to proliferate becomes limited and its potential to develop into blood doping articles types of mature cell is also restricted. Thus, these haematopoietic cells are termed committed, lineage specific progenitor cells.

The major stages of differentiation in mammalian erythropoiesis are as follows. These erythroid precursors are proerythroblasts, blood doping articles, basophilic erythroblasts, polychromatophilic erythroblasts, and orthochromatic erythroblasts.

The orthochromatic erythroblasts do not divide, but they enucleate, forming the nascent erythrocyte called the reticulocyte. The increased numbers of circulating erythrocytes in turn deliver more oxygen to the tissues.

This increased oxygen delivery is sensed by the EPO producing cells, which then reduce EPO production so that the normal steady state number of erythrocytes is restored. The response of the kidneys to hypoxia has been shown to be exponential 12 —that is, blood doping articles, in individuals with a blood doping articles capacity to produce EPO, a linear decline in haematocrit is accompanied by an blood doping articles increase in plasma EPO levels.

This exponential increase is not based on the release of stored, preformed EPO. Rather, the hypoxia is sensed by an intracellular molecule that interacts with an enhancer element of the Epo gene and thereby induces transcription of the gene. The EPO producing cells of the kidney are a minor subset of cortical interstitial cells.

Under normal conditions, only a few scattered cells produce EPO. When a threshold level of hypoxia is achieved, the cells capable of producing EPO do so at a maximal rate. The greater the areas of renal cortex in which the hypoxia threshold is met, the greater the number of cells that produce EPO, blood doping articles. The effect of EPO binding to its receptor, in terms of cellular physiology, blood doping articles, has been shown to be the prevention of programmed cell death apoptosis.

The availability of recombinant human EPO rHuEPO in in Europe made it clear that this ergogenic hormone would be used illicitly in endurance sports. Therefore, the International Olympic Committee IOC Medical Commission decided to ban this drug ineven though all forms of blood doping had been officially banned since Two philosophies were developed for the detection of rHuEPO misuse in sports.

The first one was based on the detection of indirect blood markers and the second one was based on the direct detection of rHuEPO in urine. In the meantime, blood doping articles, scientists were working on the direct detection of rHuEPO in blood or urine. This latter method had the advantage of identifying the drug itself or metabolitesbut had the disadvantage of being expensive, little sensitive, and delicate to perform.

These red blood cells were called macrocytic hypochromatic erythrocytes. This test had the advantage of being fast and cheap as long as the laboratory was equipped with this special analyser and was highly selective, blood doping articles. Ferritin was used as a denominator mainly to prevent variations in hydration level, blood doping articles. Unfortunately, during this trial, the ferritin levels of the subjects collapsed because they did not receive any iron supply.

The lack of sensitivity of some of the secondary blood markers as well as the lack of specificity of others encouraged some scientists to put them together in a multiple markers mathematical model to discriminate rHuEPO misusers from healthy sportspeople.

At the same time that the above mentioned study was performed in Australia, the Laboratoire Suisse d'Analyse du Dopage Swiss Laboratory for Doping Analyses; LAD conducted a blood doping articles randomised controlled, double blind trial, except that iron supplementation was given much more importance and it was given intravenously—for maximum efficiency and to be blood doping articles close as much as was possible to what is done in cycling, blood doping articles.

The results showed that the behaviour of secondary blood markers was different during the continuous treatment. Therefore, it is possible to separate the endogenous from the exogenous EPO isoforms based on the differences in the charge status of different sugars. Lane 1: rHuEPO standard; 2: positive urine control ; 3: negative urine control ; 4: sample declared positive; 5: darbepoetin alfa Aranesp standard.

The LAD and blood doping articles some federations took the decision together to launch the blood screening test based on the determination of the haematocrit, the haemoglobin and the reticulocyte count. It was introduced during the cycling season, Tour des Flandres. With time, this test was shown to be even more efficient during a follow up of the athletes blood profileblood doping articles, and variations above normal were shown to be excellent indicators of blood manipulation.

Blood doping has been common practice in some endurance sports for quite a few decades, because its efficiency has clearly been demonstrated. In the early s, rHuEPO was launched on the market. As a side effect of this blood doping became even blood doping articles attractive. For that reason, blood doping articles international sports federations had to limit and fight against blood doping, blood doping articles, notably by analysing blood markers of altered erythropoiesis, such as haematocrit, haemoglobin, blood doping articles, and reticulocyte count.

For approximately two years, blood doping articles, abnormal blood profiles have been noticed without any traces of rHuEPO in urines.

Blood transfusion to enhance oxygen transport with the increase of red blood cell mass was common practice in the early s. The launching in of the direct detection test of rHuEPO in urine samples had a disadvantage—a return to blood transfusion.

The regular follow up of blood markers such as haematocrit, haemoglobin, and reticulocyte count suddenly showed that some athletes had abnormal values of blood markers although blood doping articles could not be detected in urine, blood doping articles. This clearly indicated a return to blood transfusion practices.

The specific labelling of some red blood cell membrane proteins in combination with flow cytometry proved that abnormal blood profiles were due to homologous blood transfusion. A: single population without expression; B: single blood doping articles with expression; C: mixed population with a majority expressing; D: mixed population with the majority non expressing.

FITC, fluoroscein isothiocynate, blood doping articles. Each person has his or her own set reference values and based on variations and evolution of the markers over time, it is possible to identify those athletes who are manipulating, blood doping articles.

This is certainly the best way to fight blood doping as long as the preanalytical and analytical conditions are optimal, blood doping articles. The approach improves even more when announced and unannounced blood data are put together, because data of athletes manipulating their blood at the time of announced blood controls will show discrepancies. Since the introduction of rHuEPO on the market, quite a few strategies have been elaborated to fight blood doping. This review describes the strategies, their limitations, and their potential to fight blood doping more efficiently, notably homologous blood transfusion.

Sports federations that have introduced blood tests actually have a powerful tool to follow all athletes potentially misusing rHuEPO or blood transfusion. This was the way in which it was found out that haemoglobin based oxygen carrier HBOC misuse was not a major problem.

Competing interests: none declared. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Br J Sports Med. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC, blood doping articles.

Abstract Objective and method To outline the direct and indirect approaches in the fight against blood doping in sports, the different strategies that have been used and are currently being used to fight efficiently against blood doping are presented and discussed.

Results and conclusions The paper outlines the different approaches and diagnostic tools that some federations have to identify and target sportspeople demonstrating abnormal blood profiles. Keywords: EPO, doping, transfusion, haematocrit, reticulocyte count. Open in a separate window.

Targeting rHuEPO misusers The LAD and the some federations took the decision together to launch the blood screening test based on the determination of the haematocrit, the haemoglobin and the reticulocyte count.

Abnormal blood profiles For approximately two years, abnormal blood profiles have been noticed without any traces of rHuEPO blood doping articles urines. What this study adds Since the introduction of rHuEPO on the market, quite a few strategies have been elaborated to fight blood doping. Conclusions Sports federations that have introduced blood tests actually have a powerful tool to follow all athletes potentially misusing rHuEPO or blood transfusion.

Footnotes Competing interests: none declared. References 1. New insights into erythropoiesis. Curr Opin Hematol 9 93— Eckardt K U, Bauer C. Erythropoietin in health and disease. Eur J Clin Invest 19 — Fisher J W.

Erythropoietin: physiology and pharmacology update. Exp Biol Med Maywood 1— A quest for erythropoietin over nine decades. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 38 1— Lacombe C, Mayeux P. The molecular biology of erythropoietin. Nephrol Dial Transplant 14 Suppl 2 22— Fried W. Regulation of extrarenal erythropoietin production. Adv Exp Med Biol 39— Donnelly S. Why is erythropoietin made in the kidney? The kidney functions as a critmeter.

Am J Kidney Dis 38 — Kidney Int 59 —

 

Doping - The New York Times

 

blood doping articles

 

Blood doping is an illicit method of improving athletic performance by artificially boosting the blood's ability to bring more oxygen to muscles. In many cases, blood doping increases the amount Author: Matt Mcmillen. When Lance Armstrong admitted to cheating, he was admitting to blood doping, the act of artificially increasing your red blood cell count. This can be done through blood transfusions or by using EPO. Learn about the risks and side effects of blood doping, some of which can be fatal. Blood transfusions are one method used by athletes to engage in blood doping. One’s own blood (autologous blood doping) is withdrawn and refrigerated or frozen for later use. Blood can also be taken from another person with the same blood type and transfused into the athlete (homologous blood doping).Author: retgrets.ga