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scholarly articles on immigration

The Economic Benefits from Immigration by George J. Borjas. Published in volume 9, issue 2, pages of Journal of Economic Perspectives, Spring , Abstract: Natives benefit from immigration mainly because of production complementarities between immigrant workers and other factors of production. Abstract This review examines research about current levels and recent changes in ethnic and racial stratification in the United States. Research about ethnic inequality emphasizes that economic stagnation and restructuring are troubling impediments to progress toward equality, and it shows evidence that employers may still use racial and ethnic queues in hiring. Find articles. with all of the words. with the exact phrase. with at least one of the words. without the words. where my words occur. anywhere in the article. in the title of the article. Return articles authored by. e.g., "PJ Hayes" or McCarthy. Return articles published in. e.g., J Biol Chem or Nature.

Immigration and Ethnic and Racial Inequality in the United States

Almost 13 per cent of the American population is foreign born, and if the children of the foreign born are included, about 1 in 4 Americans can be counted as part of the recent immigrant community. Although there is lingering prejudice and popular fears of immigrants, there is growing evidence that, scholarly articles on immigration balance, immigrants make a positive contribution to the American economy scholarly articles on immigration society, scholarly articles on immigration.

There is little evidence that immigrants have an adverse impact on the wages and employment of native born Americans, scholarly articles on immigration. Moreover, immigrants and their children are disproportionately represented in a broad variety of scientific and cultural fields.

The United States is, once again, in the midst of an age of immigration. Inthere were 40 million foreign-born persons living in the United States Grieco et al. Of the million international migrants in the world in —defined as persons living outside their country of birth—almost one in five were residents in the United States UN Population Division An even larger number, upwards of 75 million persons in the United States—almost one quarter of the current resident American population— is part of the immigrant community, defined as foreign born and the children of the foreign born U, scholarly articles on immigration.

Bureau of the Census In spite of lingering prejudice and discrimination against immigrants, most Americans are beginning to acknowledge the positive contributions of immigrants. Moreover, scholarly articles on immigration, there is a growing body of research that shows that most immigrants do assimilate to American society and that immigration has net positive impacts on the American economy, society, and culture.

In this paper, I survey the trends in immigration to the United States with a focus on the most recent period—the Post Wave of Immigration, named for the reforms in immigration law that were enacted in the late s as part of the Civil Rights revolution. I also review recent research on the demographic, economic, social, and cultural impact of immigration on American society. Figure 1 shows the history of the absolute and relative levels of the foreign born population in the United States.

The histogram—the solid bars—shows the numbers in millions of foreign born persons in the country from to The foreign born includes everyone who is born outside the United States, including students and workers residing here temporarily.

This category also includes many undocumented immigrants—those residing in the country illegally. The curved line shows the ratio of foreign born persons to the total US population in each decennial census from to and the comparable figures for recent years from the American Community Survey.

With the renewal of immigration in recent decades, the number of foreign born persons has risen dramatically and is currently around 40 million. The visibility of the foreign born—at work, in schools, and in neighbourhoods—is measured by the proportion of foreign born to the total population, that is, the curved line in Figure 1. It is to be noted that the contemporary presence of immigrants is actually less than it was in the early 20 th century.

For most of the 19 th and early 20 th centuries, the foreign born constituted around 14 to 15 per cent of the American population. Then, scholarly articles on immigration, during the middle decades of the 20 th century, the figure dropped precipitously to below 5 per cent in With the renewal of mass immigration afterthe percent foreign born is currently 13 per cent of the total population. While this figure is high relative to the period from toit is slightly below the proportion of foreign born for much of American history.

These quotas were considered discriminatory by the children and grandchildren of Southern and Eastern European immigrants, and the immigration legislation was part of the reforms of the Civil Rights era. The advocates of reform in the s were not pushing for a major new wave of immigration; they expected a small increase in the number of arrivals from Italy, Greece, and a few other European countries, as families that were divided by the immigration restrictions of the s were allowed to be reunited Reimrs : Chap.

Family reunification and scarce occupational skills were the primary criteria for admission under the Act Keely The new preference system allowed highly skilled professionals, primarily doctors, scholarly articles on immigration, nurses, and engineers from Asian countries, to immigrate and eventually to sponsor their families.

About the same time, and largely independently of the Act, immigration from Latin America began to rise. Legal and undocumented migration from Mexico surged after a temporary farm worker programme, scholarly articles on immigration, known as the Bracero Programme, ended in Massey, Durand and Malone There have also been major waves of immigration to the United States with the fall of regimes supported by American political and military interventions abroad, including Cuba, Vietnam, and Central America.

Each of these streams of immigrant and refugee inflows has spawned secondary waves of immigration as family members have followed. Popular opposition to immigration in the early 20 th century led to the laws of the s that sharply restricted immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe.

There were much smaller waves of immigration from China and Japan, but even stronger opposition ended Asian immigration in the late 19 th and early 20 th century, scholarly articles on immigration. When the doors to immigration were opened again in the years afteronly small numbers of Europeans arrived, scholarly articles on immigration. More than 11 million—about 30 per cent of all immigrants foreign born —are from Mexico, one of the nearest neighbours of the United States.

Another 20 per cent of scholarly articles on immigration are from other countries in Latin America, with the largest numbers from Central America and the Caribbean. Migrants from Puerto Rico are domestic migrants, not immigrants, since Puerto Rico is an American territory and all Puerto Ricans are American citizens at birth.

About one quarter of the foreign-born are from Asia, and the relative share of Asian immigrants has risen in recent years. One of the hallmarks of contemporary Asian scholarly articles on immigration is its diversity—almost every country in Asia is represented in the American immigrant population. The largest Asian immigrant communities in the U. About 40 per cent of all immigrants lived in California and New York. In the s and s, scholarly articles on immigration increasingly began settling in new destinations including smaller towns in the Midwest and Southeast.

The majority of immigrants still live in California, New York, and other traditional destinations, scholarly articles on immigration, but industries are scholarly articles on immigration immigrant labour to many other regions. In addition to the high tech sectors and universities that attract highly skilled immigrants, scholarly articles on immigration, less skilled immigrants are drawn to agriculture, food processing, and manufacturing industries that are often shunned by native born workers.

The distribution of education among recent immigrants to the United States is scholarly articles on immigration. The largest group of immigrants, particularly those from Mexico and Central America, has less education, on average, than the native-born American population.

Less education, scholarly articles on immigration, however, is not equivalent to unskilled labour. Many immigrants without a high school degree are able to work in the skilled construction industry, nursing homes caring for the elderly, and in the service sectors in restaurants, hotels, and gardening.

At the other end of the educational continuum are the highly educated immigrant streams from Taiwan, India, Iran, and many African countries. Almost half of Asian immigrants have a university degree compared to only a third of native born Americans.

Many of these highly skilled immigrants fill key niches in the high tech sector, higher education, and many professional fields. There are widespread popular beliefs that immigrants take jobs that would otherwise go to native born Americans and that the wages of native born workers are depressed by the presence of immigrant workers.

These sentiments have given rise to an anti-immigrant lobby that includes political leaders, TV and radio talk-show pundits, social movement organisations, scholarly articles on immigration, including public interest organisations that publish reports and policy briefs, as well as unauthorised militia groups that patrol the U.

Neither the presence of large numbers of immigrants nor the exaggerated claims about the negative impact of immigration are new phenomena. InBenjamin Franklin complained about the Germans in Pennsylvania and their reluctance to learn English Archdeacon : 20; Jones : 39— The passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act was the first major step toward a closed society. After the Chinese Exclusion Act was passed, Japanese migrants became a new source of cheap labour scholarly articles on immigration the West coast and Scholarly articles on immigration. Japanese immigration was targeted by the same groups that opposed Chinese immigrants.

Southern and Eastern European groups also faced an increasingly hostile context of reception as their numbers scholarly articles on immigration at the turn of the twentieth century. After a long political struggle, Congress passed restrictive laws in the early s that stopped almost all immigration except from Northwestern Europe. In spite of the fears that immigrants are resistant to learning English and refuse to join the American mainstream, there is a large body of social science and historical research which concludes that immigrants have, by and large, assimilated to American society AlbaAlba and Nee ; Duncan and Duncan ; Lieberson This does not mean that assimilation was painless, automatic, or immediate.

For the first generation of immigrants who arrived as adults, the processes of linguistic, cultural, and social change were painful and usually incomplete. Immigrants tend to settle in ethnic enclaves, prefer to speak their mother tongue, and gravitate to places of worship and social events that scholarly articles on immigration cultural continuity with their origins Handlin ; Portes and Rumbaut Many immigrants do learn English and find employment in the general economy, but few feel completely part of their new society.

With the passage of time, and especially following the emergence of the second generation, there was unmistakable evidence of assimilation among the descendants of early 20 th century European immigrants.

Acculturated through their attendance at American schools, the children of immigrants did not share the ambivalence of their immigrant parents. The second generation spoke fluent English and was eager to join the American mainstream. By all measures, including socio-economic status, residential mobility, and intermarriage, they left behind the ethnic world of their immigrant parents Alba and Nee ; Lieberson By the s, patterns of suburbanisation broke down ethnic neighborhoods and intermarriage became more common Alba and Nee ; Lieberson and Waters Although it is widely assumed that immigrants in the Post Immigration Wave are less likely to assimilate than those who arrived in the early 20 th century, there is growing evidence that the new immigrants, especially their children, scholarly articles on immigration, are doing remarkably well Alba and Nee ; Kasinitz et al.

On average, second generation immigrants are less likely to drop out of high school and more likely to attend college than the average native born American Hirschman ; Scholarly articles on immigration and Glick Intermarriage is also common: recent research estimates that one-third to one-half of second generation Hispanics and Asians marry outside of their community Duncan and Trejo ; Min and Kim The children of contemporary immigrants are on track scholarly articles on immigration assimilation and upward mobility at about the same pace as the descendants of earlier waves of immigration from Europe.

There are widespread popular beliefs, including many influential voices within public policy circles, which argue that immigration is harmful to the economic welfare of the country, especially to native born Americans Borjas ; Bouvier ; Briggs ; Brimelow The central claim is that immigrants, because they are willing to work for lower wages, take jobs from native born American workers.

Competition from immigrant workers is expected to depress wages, especially in the low-skilled labour market Borjas Finally, immigrants are thought to be an economic burden because they disproportionately receive public benefits, such as health care, schooling, and welfare without paying their fair share of taxes.

These claims, however, are not supported by empirical evidence. The definitive statement on the economic consequences of immigration was the report of the National Research Council NRC panel on the demographic and economic impacts of immigration, scholarly articles on immigration, which drew on the theoretical and empirical research conducted by leading specialists in labour economics and public finance Scholarly articles on immigration and Edmonston ;also see Card ; The major conclusion of the NRC report was that the net effects of immigration on the American economy were very modest.

Immigration does expand labour supply and may increase competition for jobs and lower wages for native workers who are substitutes for immigrants, but immigration also expands total production national income and increases the incomes that accrue to native born workers who are complements to immigrants Smith and Edmondson : Chap. Although some native born workers may compete for the same jobs as immigrants, many more may be complements to immigrants.

Moreover, many native born workers have direct or indirect income from capital through their savings, ownership of property, and as recipients of pension programmes. The most likely reason for a lack of empirical support for the presumed negative impact of immigration is the questionable assumption that the only impact of additional workers immigrants on the labour market is through wage competition.

The presence of immigrants has broader effects on economic growth, scholarly articles on immigration, both locally and nationally, that leads to rising wage levels for native born workers.

Among the potential mechanisms are increased national savings, entrepreneurship and small business development, a faster rate of inventive activity and technological innovation, and increasing economies of scale, scholarly articles on immigration, both in the production and consumer markets Carter and Sutch There is a long-standing hypothesis in economic history that high levels of immigration scholarly articles on immigration economic growth by increasing demand for housing, urban development, scholarly articles on immigration, and other amenities Easterlin A recent study found that immigration provided the necessary labour supply for the rapid growth of manufacturing during the American Industrial Revolution from to Hirschman and Mogford Another major economic issue addressed by the NRC report was the impact of immigration on the governmental fiscal system—the balance between taxes paid and the value of government services received Clune ; Garvey and Espendshade ; Lee and Miller ; Smith and Edmonston : Chaps.

The NRC researchers report that the average native born household in New Jersey and California pays more in state and local taxes as a result of the presence of immigrants Smith and Edmonston : Chap.

These results are largely determined by the lower wages of immigrants and the demographic composition of immigrant households, which tend to be younger and have more children than the native born population. The largest component of local and state government budgets is schooling, and immigrant households, with more children per household scholarly articles on immigration native born households, are disproportionately beneficiaries of state support for schooling.

Despite potential imbalances in scholarly articles on immigration net transfer of revenues at the local and state level, an accounting of the federal fiscal system shows that immigrants and their descendants contribute scholarly articles on immigration in taxes than they receive in benefits Smith and Edmonston : Chap. Just as the age structure of immigrant households makes them disproportionately the beneficiaries of public education, the relative youth of immigrants also means they are less likely be beneficiaries of Social Security and Medicare and Medicaid for many of the institutionalised elderly.

Immigrants also help to relieve the per-capita fiscal burden of native born for the national debt, scholarly articles on immigration, national security, and public goods, which are major federal expenditures that are only loosely tied to population size. Scientific progress is a major source of modern economic growth, increasing longevity and other features of modern development that enhance the quality of life in the United States.


Illegal Immigration - The New York Times


scholarly articles on immigration


those illegal immigrants in the U.S. who applied for legalization in and under the provisions of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of Based on the public use LPS sample, Table 4 presents data on the characteristics of illegal border crossers and visa. The Economic Benefits from Immigration by George J. Borjas. Published in volume 9, issue 2, pages of Journal of Economic Perspectives, Spring , Abstract: Natives benefit from immigration mainly because of production complementarities between immigrant workers and other factors of production. of several books, including Heaven’s Door: Immigration Policy and the American Economy (Princeton University Press, ), and the widely used textbook Labor Economics (McGraw-Hill, ), now in its sixth edition. He has published over articles in books and scholarly journals. He received his Ph.D. in economics from Columbia University in.